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2018中考英语易错知识点专练:简单句(含答案和解析)

编辑:学号英语 时间:2017-09-10 15:43:39 浏览:30次 来源: 作者:

简单句的基本句型各有特色。例如:反意疑问句由“陈述句+简单问句”构成;感叹句由what或how引导;祈使句由动词原形开头等。考生要熟记简单句的各种句型,积累一些经典句型。根据句型特点解答有关试题。


1


易错知识点清单


一. 陈述句的否定结构


1. 含有have的否定句


(1) have当“拥有,所有”讲时,其否定形式有两种。如:

I have an e-dictionary.我有一个电子词典。

可改为:I don't have an e-dictionary. (√)

I have not an e-dictionary. (√)


(2) have作“吃、喝、玩、度过”讲时,其否定形式借助于助动词do。如:

I had milk for breakfast this morning. (变否定句) →I didn't have milk for breakfast this morning.


(3) have为助动词时,其否定形式为haven't。如:

I have visited Diaoyu Island. (变否定句) →I haven't visited Diaoyu Island.


2. 注意以下几种情况:


(1) 含有all, both, each, every, both...and...等的肯定句加not变为否定句后,只表示部分否定;若表示全部否定,则需分别用no, no one, nobody, none, neither, neither...nor...等词替换上述词。如:

Both Mary and Joan are students

→Neither Mary nor Joan is a student.


(2) 含有already (已经),too (也)的肯定句加not变为否定句时,要分别把already和too改为yet和either。如:

He has already seen the movie. (变为否定句) →He hasn't seen the movie yet.

I want to go for a picnic, too. (变否定句) →I don't want to go for a picnic,either.


(3) 含有almost, many, much, often等词的肯定句可直接用never (hardly),few, little, seldom变为否定句,而不用加not。如:

He always stays up late in the evening. (变为否定句) →He never (hardly) stays up late in the evening.

There is much food in the fridge. (变为否定句)→There is little food in the fridge.


3. 当主句的谓语动词是think, believe, suppose等时,若要否定宾语从句,应注意否定转移现象。


I think you are right.我认为你是对的。

I don't think you are right.我认为你不对。


二. 对一般疑问句的回答


一般情况下,含有情态动词的一般疑问句,回答时应用与问句相同的词,但有时也用其他情态动词来回答。


用情态动词may提问时,否定回答用mustn't, can't, may not。如:

—May I smoke here?——我可以在这儿吸烟吗?

—Yes, you may. ——是的,可以。

—No, you mustn't. ——不,绝对不可以。

—No, you can't. ——不,不可以。


2


提分策略


简单句的基本句型各有特色。例如:反意疑问句由“陈述句+简单问句”构成;感叹句由what或how引导;祈使句由动词原形开头等。考生要熟记简单句的各种句型,积累一些经典句型。根据句型特点解答有关试题。


【例】(2014·福建福州·32)—    foggy day!

—Something must be done to solve the haze problem.

A. How   B. What   C. What a

【解析】本题考查感叹句的用法。因为这里是形容词foggy后面加单数名词day,用what来引导。所以选C。

【答案】C


【例】(2014·江苏苏州·2)—    do you go to the sports club?

—At least once a week.

A. How long B. How often

C. How much D. How far

【解析】本题考查疑问词的用法。根据下句的回答“至少每周一次”,所以可知上句问的是动作发生的频率,所以上句的疑问词是how often。

【答案】B


3


专项训练


1. (2014·内蒙古赤峰·37)—Have you heard of Zhang Lili? She was seriously hurt in an accident in order to save one of her students.

     good teacher!

A. How B. What 

C. What a D. What an


2. (2014· 江苏常州·28)—Millie hardly did the housework after she bought the robot,    ?

    . She could relax and have time for her hobbies.

A. did she; Yes B. didn't she; No

C. didn't she; Yes D. did she; No


3. (2014·山东德州·20)He's still not understood by his close friend although he has said sorry to him,     ?

A. hasn't he B. has he

C. isn't he D. is he


4. (2013·四川成都)—     do you surf the Internet, Maria?

—Twice a week.

A. How long B. How often C. How soon


5. (2013·四川绵阳)—Don't smoke in the reading room,     ?

—I'm sorry. I won't do it again.

A. will you B. shall we C. do you


6. (2013·湖南长沙)—     do you think of the film?

—Very interesting.

A. What B. Who C. How


7. (2013·天津)—     nice dress it is!

—Thank you!

A. What a B. What C. How D. How a


8. (2013·河北)—     is the dictionary?

—It's $22. 95.

A. How old B. How long

C. How thick D. How much


答案与解析

1. C 解析:考查感叹句的用法。句中的名词是单数形式,感叹句应该用what a来引导。故选C。

2. A 解析:考查反意疑问句的用法。疑问句的陈述部分含否定意义,疑问部分应该用肯定结构,所以排除B、C两项。由应答句后面一句判断,该疑问句应该作肯定回答。故选A。

3. D 解析:考查反意疑问句的用法。该句是让步状语从句,主句是一般现在时态的被动语态,反意问句应该与主句一致,故选D。

4. B 解析:考查疑问副词的用法。how long询问(延续)多长时间,回答用for...或since...引导的时间状语;how often多久一次,询问动作的频率,多长时间;how soon 询问还要多久才……,一般用于将来时,回答用in +一段时间。

5. A 解析:考查反意疑问句。句子的陈述部分是祈使句,祈使句的反意疑问句的疑问部分是will you?故选A。

6. A 解析:考查特殊疑问词的用法。根据对话中的答语“很有趣”可知,提问的是对事物的看法,用句型“What do you think of...?”。故选A。

7. A 解析:考查感叹句的用法。nice dress为可数名词短语,前用what,可数名词短语前面要用冠词a/an,故选A。

8. D 解析:考查疑问副词的用法。how old询问多大岁数,how long询问多长时间,how thick询问多厚,how much询问多少钱。此题的答语是价钱,故选D。


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